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How to Tell the Difference Between AMA, APA, Chicago & MLA Citations

This is a breakdown of the differences between 4 citation styles used at Trine that is meant to be used for quick reference. For more detailed information, consult one of the official resources listed below. Always be sure to follow your professors’ instructions.

AMA

APA

Chicago

MLA

What is most important? Data Date Author Author
What do I call my Works Cited page? References References Bibliography or Works Cited Works Cited
Do I need a notes page or foot notes? No No Notes page at the end before the bibliography No
What order do sources go on my Works Cited page? Order they appear in the paper Alphabetical by author’s last name Alphabetical by author’s last name Alphabetical by author’s last name
How do I format book and article titles? Capitalize first word of title and subtitle ONLY Capitalize first word of title and subtitle ONLY Capitalize all major words Capitalize all major words
How do I identify authors? Initials with no periods or spaces Initials and last names Full first and last names Full first and last names
Do I use “and” when there’s more than one author? Do not list author names in in-text citations Use & with more than 1 author Use “and” with more than 1 author Use “and” with more than 1 author
What should my in-text citation look like and where should I put it? Superscript numbers after the sentence punctuation

Sentence text here.1

After the author’s name in the sentence in parentheses

Author’s Last Name (2015) sentence text here with ”quote” (p. 10).

OR

Author’s last name and date and page numbers for quotes in parentheses or before the sentence punctuation.

Sentence text here (Author’s Last Name, 2015, p. 10).

Superscript number after the sentence punctuation

Sentence text here.1

 

For Multiple Sources, references are included directly after info from that source

Source 1 info here,1 continues here with info from second source.2

Authors last name and page number in parentheses before the sentence punctuation

Sentence text here (Author’s Last Name 10).

OR

Author’s Name in sentence followed by text (10).

Do I use punctuation in my in-text citation? Commas between numerals when citing more than 1 source

Sentence text here. 1,3,4

Commas between information

Sentence text here (Last Name, 2015).

Sentence text here with “quote” (Author’s Last Name, 2015, p. 10).

NO punctuation

Sentence text here.1

NO punctuation in in-text citations

Sentence Text Here (Author’s Last Name 10).

How do I include page numbers in my in-text citation? Can include page numbers in parentheses

Sentence text here. 1(35-42)

Use p. or pp. (for multiple pages)

Author’s Last Name (2015) sentence text here with ”quote” (pp. 10-11).

Use page numbers in notes only Use page numbers in parentheses

Sentence text here (Author’s Last Name 10).

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